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Archive for March 5th, 2012

Topic: Part 1 The Pantry

Meat:

 

        Beef

       Goat

       Lamb

       Antelope

       Gazelle

       Oryx

       Rabbit

       Pork

 

Poultry:

 

        Chicken       (probably in Roman period) but could have been

                                    Introduced in New Kingdom and rare until the  

                     Roman period.

       Ducks

       Doves

       Geese        (forced fed goose, mince cooked liver, type of

                     (Pate foie Gras)

                     (roast geese is considered one of the greatest       delicates)

       Pigeons

       Quails

       –Eggs—

              hard boiled, deviled eggs

 

Brewing and Baking-Meketre Tomb Thebes

 

 

Fishes:    ( Dried fish, fish cakes, various cooked fishes)

     

        Carp

       Salmon

       General

       Turtle

       Lobster

       Octopus

 

Vegetables:

 

      Beans

              Yellow Broad Beans  (Lupin seed)

              Common Broad Beans (used in Falafel or ta’amia, ful nabed)

              Smaller Brown Beans (ful medomes

              Black eyed Beans

       Celery

       Cabbage

       Chick peas  (also used as Hummus)

       Cucumbers

       Water Cress

       Garlic        (milder than usual, can use shallots)

       Leeks        (Egyptian word is lakt, meaning holy, sacred to Seker

       Lentils      ( 3,150 bce)

       Lettuce    ( sacred to Min and Amon) considered an aphrodisiac

                     (Cos lettuce especially)

       Onions       (sweeter than normal)

        Olives

       Peas

                     Yellow

                     Cow

                     Pigeon

                     Asparagus beans

                     Grass peas

       Pickles

       Radishes

      

Grains:

 

      Barley      (pre 4,000 bc?)   used for bread and beer

       Kamut              (used for bread)

       Emmer   (oldest)   (used for bread)

       Eikorn

              In addition to bread and beer, grains were used for soups,

              Gruel, flapjacks or pancakes, pita bread, sweetened bread

              Flavored with nuts and spices, seeds and cumin.

              Bread dough can have fat, milk or eggs, sweetened with

              Honey or fruit.

      

Fruits:

 

      Avocado    (from Persea Tree) This is a conjecture but the genus name for this fruit is Persea! 

      Apricots    ( Roman )

       Apples      ( New Kingdom or Greek )

       Carob        (used in place of chocolate)

       Cherries    ( Greek )

       Citrus        (Ptolemaic, maybe lemons)

       Dates        (predynastic)

       Figs

       Grapes     ( red, green )

              Raisins

       Lotus Seeds  ( Makes Lotus seed cakes ) (Nymphae Lotus were

              Collected and dried the seed vessels of the plant, which               were crushed and made into cakes and breads.)

       Melons             (including cucumis melo, citrullus vulgais)     

       Nebk Berries       (Christ thorn, may be confused with Cherries)

       Pomegranates  ( New Kingdom?)  ( Egyptian name is Saada )

              (used for wine, seeds, juice and syrup)

       Pears        ( Greek )

       Peaches    ( Roman )

       Plums

      

Nuts:

 

      Almonds    ( Greek? )

       Dom Nuts   (made into Bread, with a gingerbread like taste)

              (Dom palm nut has a fibrous exterior envelope, sweet      

              flavor similar to Gingerbread)

       Walnuts     (rare)

       Tiger Nuts  (probably used ground)

 

Triangular Bread from Ancient Egypt

 

 

Spices and Herbs:

 

      Anise seed

       Capers

       Caraway

       Celery Seed

       Chervil             (probably)

       Cinnamon          (called Ty-sheps, imported and important)

       Cumin               (used a lot)

       Coriander

       Dill                 (sacred to Amseth)

       Endive

       Fennel              (probably)

       Fenugreek         (curry smell)

       Garlic

       Mint

       Mustard

       Parsley

       Rosemary

       Sage

 

Oils and other Mediums:

      Butter             (clarified)

       Fats

       Lard

       Wine

       Beer

       

       Oils:

              Balsam            (III rd dynasty)

             Castor             (Egyptian name kiki)

              Moringa

              Linseed

              Safflower          (Egyptian name iol )

              Olive        ( New Kingdom? )

              Almond    (?)

              Sesame           (Shemshemet in Egyptian, Semsem=Arabic)

 

       Vinegars:   many used, sometimes flavored with herbs and garlic

 

Misc:

 

      Honey

       Cream

       Butter       (clarified only, samna, sometimes mixed with aromatic   

                     Spices.

       Cheese    (  goat and cow )

              Soft:  made with yogurt, spread able, can be mixed with oil     

                     And herbs, called Labna

              Firm:   called Gebna

       Milk       ( goat and cow)

       Yogurt

 

Medicinal Plants:

 

      Water Lily

       Lotus

       Nightshade

       Mandrake

       Heliotrope

       Iris

       Ivy

       Chrysanthemum

       Narcissus

       Poppy

 

 

Initial Offerings of bread and salt:  An act of hospitality, an offering of bread sprinkled with salt seals a guest friendship and its acceptance by a visitor is a tact promise to respect the host’s household.

 

Bread:  The Egyptians made about 30 to 40 varieties of bread.  White, quick, flat, flavored, sweet.  Breads are flavored by spices, herbs, fruit, honey.

       One prime example is a flat bread with oil, garlic, onion and cheese (Neapolitan pizza for example).  Pita bread.

 

Menu Items:

 

Appetizers:

      Hummus

       Falafel

       Hard boiled eggs

       Deviled eggs

 

Soups:

      Crème of Onion

       Garlic

       Leek

       Lentil

       Lobster

       Bean

       Barley

       Turtle

 

Salads and Side Dishes:

      Bean salad

 

Main Dishes:

      Lamb Stew

       Beef ribs

 

Types of Cooking:

      Stews

       Braised

       Bakes

       Broiled

       Grilled

       Stir fry

 

Types of Sauces:

      Wine and butter

       Butter

       Cheese

       Beef broth       chicken based sauces

       Milk, crème

 

Desserts:

      Honey Cakes

       Cinnamon cakes

       Flavored and/or sweet cakes

       Fruited Yogurt

       Fruit

       Fruit with a sweet dessert style wine poured in

       Lotus cakes

       Flavored and/or sweet breads

This list came to me author unknown but was drawn up by my husband who is an Egyptologist.

If I were to give credit it would be to Hilary Wilson and her book Egyptian Food and Drink. He got the majority of his material from this book but not all.

By Joanna Linsley-Poe

copyright 2012

Part 2 on Wednesday

 

 

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