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Archive for the ‘North America’ Category

Below is a photo my husband took of the Luminaries in Old Town, Albuquerque, New Mexico last Christmas.

Old Town, ABQ
Copyright 2016 by Michael Poe

These were taken of the Luminaries in a nearby neighborhood.

Enjoy your Holidays!

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Original article:

Eurekalert.org

 

University of Cincinnati archaeologist Alan Sullivan found scant evidence that people grew corn around the Grand Canyon 1,200 years ago. Instead, he said they used fire to cultivate wild foods.

Source: Archaeologist says fire, not corn, key to prehistoric survival in arid Southwest

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Original article:

NBC news.com
by Liam Miller
TEMUCO, Chile — Unearthed 1,000-year-old pottery remains could settle a bubbling debate and prove lager beer has its origins in South America.
Archaeologist Dr. Alberto Perez excavated ceramic pottery remains in southern forests near the Chile-Argentina border in 2016, just north of Patagonia.
A new genetic analysis of the ceramics has shown they contain traces of a yeast called Saccharomyces eubayanus — known as the “lost parent” of lager beer.
Perez’s find suggests that the group who made the ceramic vessels were probably using them to make a fermented drink from plant products, similar to the “chicha” or “mudai” beverage drunk in the region today. That might mean they were doing so using the yeast S. eubayanus to make alcohol more than 200 years before lager production began in Bavaria in the 1400s.
The discovery raises questions about whether South America is the origin of the unusual yeast that allows brewers to ferment lager at cool temperatures and provides its crisp and refreshing flavor.
“This is the first archaeological evidence and earliest evidence of any kind of Saccharomyces eubayanus being used in alcohol production,” said Perez, who is based at Universidad Catolica de Temuco in Chile. “Our findings confirm the historical presence of the yeast in this region and now we have confirmation of its use.”
Lager is the world’s most popular fermented drink and scientists have known since the 1980s that the yeast used to produce it — Saccharomyces pastorianus — is a hybrid between two “parent” yeasts.
One is a well-known warm-brewing yeast called Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used in making ales and bread.
But beer experts suspected the other cold-resistant parent did not come from Europe. Yeasts grow naturally in many places including skin fruits, trees, soil and even on insects. But one with the characteristics of S. eubayanus — which thrives in cold temperatures — has never been found growing wild in Europe.
The cold-resistant missing parent remained a secret until 2011 when Dr. Chris Hittinger from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and an international team of geneticists and microbiologists from the U.S., Portugal and Argentina identified S. eubayanus in wild samples from a Nothofagus tree in Patagonian forests.
The discovery was soon followed by a heated debate over a key qustion: How had a yeast from the cold southern regions of South America traveled to Bavaria where lager was invented in the 1400s — when European explorers only made landfall on South America in the late 1400s?
The timing appeared too tight. But some theorized the yeast might have traveled on the boat timber of the early traders who followed Christoper Columbus, or that early lagers had simply been brewed using different strains.
Following a 2014 discovery of wild-growing S. eubayanus on the Tibetan Plateau in western and northwestern China, a Chinese research paper led by Jian Bing and Pei-Jie Han argued that S. eubayanus more likely traveled from Asia on the Silk Road trade route, which was well established in time for lager’s invention.
New studies by Hittinger from 2014 until last year found S. eubayanus in several other locations including North America, while another group found isolates in New Zealand. And there were slightly varying types of S. eubayanus.

We discovered there were several strains of Saccharomyes eubayanus,” Hittinger said. “Our research showed that Patagonia is home to a tremendous diversity of S. eubayanus and one of our models suggested a lager yeast ancestor originated there and spread northwards.”
Yeasts migrate in a number of ways and Hittinger’s team proposed in their 2016 paper that birds or insects were a possible mode of transportation for S. eubayanus, possibly thousands of years before lager was invented and therefore in no need of a human helping-hand.
So how do Perez’s findings fit in?
“The evidence that Saccharomyces eubayanus may have been used to ferment beverages before contact between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres suggests an intriguing twist to the origin of lager yeasts,” said Hittinger, who was not part of Perez’s study. “Future genetic studies will be required to exclude the possibility that these strains are environmental contaminants and to determine how they are related to wild Patagonian strains, wild strains from the Northern Hemisphere, and the domesticated hybrid strains used to brew lagers.”
Perez’s team found the pottery remains near San Martin de Los Andes in Argentina, close to the Chilean border.
“The people who made them around 1,000 years ago would have been from a hunter-gatherer society with a mixed economy based on seasonal produce of mainly seeds and fruits and some cultivated plants,” he said.
His team excavated 6 of the 30 archaeological sites they identified in their survey, discovering and analyzing a large and diverse number of ceramic artifacts. Part of the analysis included making yeast cultures from organic residues extracted from inside the ceramics.
The analysis that led to the discovery of S. eubayanus was performed by an interdisciplinary team led by archaeologist Jose Luis Lanata and the biologist Christian Lopes, both based at Argentina’s National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET).
“Saccharomyces eubayanus turned up in remains from two of the sites,” Perez said. “We had strong evidence showing the ceramics had been used to ferment vegetal products to produce alcoholic beverages.”
He speculated that these fermented drinks likely “played a prominent role in the spiritual and social world of the group.”

 

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(Courtesy Bob Dawe, Royal Alberta Museum)Removal of plaster-covered roasting pit, Head-Smashed-In, Canada

 

Source: A Removable Feast

Royal Alberta Museum archaeologist Bob Dawe recently returned to the scene of an unusual discovery he made in 1990. While excavating at Head-Smashed-In, a prehistoric buffalo jump in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, he uncovered an intact 1,600-year-old sandstone-lined roasting pit. Such archaeological features are often found near buffalo jumps and were probably used to cook large quantities of meat for celebratory feasts—but they are always empty. This example was brimming with bones belonging to a buffalo calf, at least two adult buffalo, and a canine, probably a dog-wolf hybrid. The people who had hoped to dine on the meat, likely ancestors of today’s Blackfoot, never retrieved it. Sensing excavation of the pit would be a complicated affair, Dawe covered it up and vowed to return when he had the time to investigate it properly.

Last summer, with the help of paleontologists, Dawe and his team dug around the roasting pit and encased it in a plaster jacket so they could lift it out of the earth intact. Dawe plans to methodically excavate the feature in the laboratory, and eventually put it on display, but he doesn’t expect to ever find out just why the lavish banquet remained in the ground. “It would have been quite a feast,” says Dawe, “so something drastic must have happened. Maybe there was a blizzard, or a prairie fire. Or maybe other people drove them away.”

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Original article:

Nature.com

Changes to flowering times helped the staple crop spread into new areas thousands of years ago.

Genome sequences from nearly 2,000-year-old cobs of maize (corn) found in a Utah cave paint a portrait of the crop at the dawn of its adaptation to the highlands of the US southwest. That maize, researchers found, was small, bushy and — crucially — had developed the genetic traits it needed to survive the short growing seasons of high altitudes.

The team’s study1, published on 3 August in Science, is remarkable in how it tackles complex genetic traits governed by the interactions of many different genes, say researchers. It uses that information to create a detailed snapshot of a crop in the middle of domestication. Such insights could help modern plant breeders to buffer crops against global climate change.

Geneticists of both modern and ancient crops have poured tremendous effort into understanding maize, which was one of the most important subsistence crops in the New World thousands of years ago, and is a cornerstone of global agriculture today.

Maize originated in Mexico and rapidly spread into the lowlands of the southwest United States about 4,000 years ago. But communities at higher altitudes did not fully embrace the crop until 2,000 years later — a delay that has long puzzled archaeologists studying the region, says Kelly Swarts, a quantitative geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in Tübingen, Germany. “There was always the question: why wasn’t this catching on? Why weren’t people doing agriculture in the uplands?” she says.

Swarts and her colleagues turned to a site in a Utah cave called Turkey Pen Shelter, where a farming community lived about 2,000 years ago. Inhabitants of the cave raised turkeys, wove intricate baskets and shoes, and had the resources needed to store and process corn. Maize, which they probably served in soups and stews, comprised about 80% of their diet.

Complex crops

Swarts’s team sequenced the genomes of fifteen 1,900-year-old maize cobs found in the shelter and compared their sequences to those in a database of genomes and physical traits from some 2,600 modern maize lines. The researchers then used that information to extrapolate the physical characteristics of the Turkey Pen maize plants, including complex traits such as flowering time. The analysis revealed a crop that was shorter and more branched than modern varieties. “More like little bushes,” says Swarts, though the role of these traits is unclear. The crop also flowered more quickly than lowland varieties — an important adaptation to life in the highlands, which have a shorter growing season than lower elevations.

The analysis could open the way for similar studies of complex traits in other plants and animals, including humans, says Matthew Hufford, who studies evolutionary genomics in maize at Iowa State University in Ames. “We just now have the genetic tools and the analytic tools to make really good use of them.”

Plant evolutionary biologist Robin Allaby of the University of Warwick, UK looks forward to seeing the same approach applied to earlier stages of maize domestication. “That stuff was 1,900 years old, and a lot of the whistles and bangs had already happened,” he says. “It’s going to be really cool to see what a full 5,000-year-old maize phenotype looks like.”

A key finding from the study, says Hufford, was the realization that the genetic variants needed to adapt to highland life were already circulating in maize populations thousands of years ago “The diversity needed for high altitudes was there, but getting it in the right combination took 2,000 years,” he says.

And that diversity could be crucial for breeders as they try to adapt modern maize to a rapidly changing climate, says Swarts. “It’s really promising for maize’s future that it has so much standing variation — assuming we can conserve that diversity,” says Swarts. “If we needed to do this, it wouldn’t take 2,000 years. We could do it a lot faster now.”

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The food chains recovered more rapidly than previously assumed after Earth’s most devastating mass extinction event about 252 million years ago as demonstrated by the fossilized skull of a large predatory fish called Birgeria americana discovered by paleontologists from the University of Zurich in the desert of Nevada.

Source: Large-mouthed fish was top predator after mass extinction

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More on the Four Corners Potato!

IMG_2912Original article

Salt Lake Tribune

By BRIAN MAFFLY

Delane Griffin’s yard around his Escalante home is filled with a wild potato that his late wife, Leah, transplanted from nearby sites. For decades, some residents in this southern Utah town have enjoyed these tiny potatoes, which have a nutty flavor when prepared properly.

Now, new archaeological research from the University of Utah shows that prehistoric inhabitants of the Escalante Valley could have been nourishing themselves with this tuber for thousands of years, long before potatoes were known to have been domesticated into one of world’s most widespread and vital crops.

“Our study has found the earliest evidence of potato use in North America,” said Lisbeth Louderback, the Natural History Museum of Utah’s archaeology curator. “It’s about the rediscovery of wild potatoes native to North America and [the plant] being a very important food resource for the past 10,000 years up until today.”

She added: “The potato has become a forgotten part of Escalante’s history. Our work is to help rediscover this heritage.”

Her findings, based on analyses of plant residues recovered from grinding tools, were posted Monday by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. To develop her hypothesis, Louderback teamed with botanist Bruce Pavlik, conservation director of the U.’s Red Butte Garden, to develop ways to identify potato starch granules and find spots in the Escalante Valley where the Four Corners potato, or Solanum jamesii, grow. Her findings, based on analyses of plant residues recovered from grinding tools, were posted Monday by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The potatoes the world is now familiar with have all descended from tubers native to South America and bred into thousands of varieties.

S. jamesii, by contrast, is a species native to North America and limited mostly to parts of Arizona and New Mexico. On the Colorado Plateau, it is found in small, isolated populations, according to Pavlik. The tuber is highly nutritious, packing twice the protein, zinc and manganese, and three times the calcium and iron, as the standard Solanum tuberosum.

The Four Corners potato may be relatively tiny, but one plant can yield up to 125 tubers, ranging in size up to a silver dollar.

During the course of the U. research, the scientists discovered these populations are closely associated with archaeological sites. This suggests ancient people brought the potato here and planted them. Genetic analysis backs up this hypothesis, although more evidence must be analyzed, said Pavlik.

Asking today’s locals where they could find these plants, U. scientists discovered the trove in Griffin’s garden. He is a 94-year-old descendant of Mormon pioneers who settled the valley in 1876. By then, the area already was known as Potato Valley, according to the journals of U.S. Cavalry men who passed through a decade earlier and ate the wild potatoes.

“We have found wild potatoes growing from which the valley takes its name,” wrote Capt. James Andrus in 1866.

Griffin’s wife was a history buff who was curious why Escalante residents didn’t know why the area had been called Potato Valley. Leah Griffin figured the wild potatoes had something to do with it and started growing them.

“It was a rare thing. It wasn’t found every place and that was one of the things that made it important to her,” Griffin says in a video the U. produced to publicize the research.

The Griffins’ garden was a perfect launching point for Louderback, an assistant professor of anthropology who explores diets of ancient people. Her research interest drew her to the smooth stones ancient people used for grinding plant fibers into something edible.

“Grinding plant tissues with manos and metates releases granules that get lodged in the tiny cracks of stone, preserving them for thousands of years. Archaeologists can retrieve them using chemicals, modern microscopy and advanced imaging techniques,” she said. “It’s a whole other data set that’s been untapped all these years because starch grain analysis hasn’t been widely used until maybe 10 years ago.”

For her doctoral work at the University of Washington, Louderback developed a technique for identifying potato starch grains, which are rare among food plants for having an off-center hila — the point on the granule where the starch layers are deposited. She came up with five criteria for identifying ancient potato starch, then put the methodology to work on the residues found on tools recovered from the oldest archaeological site on the Colorado Plateau.

North Creek Shelter is now on property west of Escalante owned by Joette-Marie Rex, who operates the Slot Canyons Inn and North Creek Grill. A decade ago, a team led by Brigham Young University’s Joel Janetski excavated the site to find stratigraphic layers indicating continuous habitation dating back 11,000 years. These layers yielded numerous manos and metates that are now housed at the Museum of Peoples and Cultures.

Louderback recovered 323 intact granules from 24 tools in this collection. Nine met all five criteria for the potato and 61 met four, offering proof that the potato was part of the ancients’ diet. The oldest tool yielding potato starch dates from 10,900 to 10,100 years ago.

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