Feeds:
Posts
Comments
can of Turtle Soup

can of Turtle Soup

 

Original Article:

By  Janene Pieters

nltimes.nl

Construction workers working on the construction of a railway tunnel and parking garage on Phoenixstraat in Delft, recently made a remarkable discovery – an old tin can that used to contain a culinary delicacy: turtle soup, Archaeology Delft announced.

The construction workers first thought they struck gold when they found the shiny can, but it later turned out to be tin with a brass wrap. Still, the can was never intended for an average Joe, according to Archaeology Delft. Turtle soup was considered a massive delicacy, and was served as and was served as an appetizer ath King Wille III’s 70th birthday party in Grand Hotel Krasnapolsky in Amsterdam on 23 April 1887.

The label of the can reads in French: “Preserved foods, W. Hoogenstraaten and Sons, purveyor, turtle soup, Leiden. “The soup was therefore of Dutch origin, but was probably sold throughout Europe. French was a common language then”, Bas Penning of Archaeology Delft explained to AD.

The company W. Hoogenstraaten & Co. was founded in Leiden in 1860. In 1900 the company changed its name to Nederlandsche Fabriek van Verduurzaamde Levensmiddelen. Which means that the found can was manufactured somewhere between 1860 and 1900.

 

Ancient rice wheel

Original Article:

europe.chinadaily.com.cn

 

NANJING – Chinese archaeologists said they have found a paddy dating back more than 8,000 years, which could be the earliest wet rice farming site in the world.

The field, covering less than 100 square meters, was discovered at the neolithic ruins of Hanjing in Sihong county in East China’s Jiangsu province in November 2015, according to a spokesman with the archeology institute of Nanjing Museum.

At a seminar held in late April to discuss findings at the Hanjing ruins, more than 70 scholars from universities, archeology institutes and museums across the country concluded that the wet rice field was the oldest ever discovered.

Researchers with the institute found that the paddy was divided into parts with different shapes, each covering less than 10 square meters.

They also found carbonized rice that was confirmed to have grown more than 8,000 years ago based on carbon dating, as well as evidence that the soil was repeatedly planted with rice.

Lin Liugen, head of the institute, said Chinese people started to cultivate rice about 10,000 years ago and carbonized rice of the age has been found, but paddy remnants are quite rare.

Lin said the findings would be significant for research on the origin of rice farming in China.

 

 

Original Article:

popular-archaeology.com

 

PLOS ONE—When fluctuating climates in the Ice Age altered habitats, modern humans may have adapted their diets in a different way than Neandertals, according to a study published April 27, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Sireen El Zaatari of the University of Tübingen, Germany, and colleagues.

The Neandertal lineage survived for hundreds of thousands of years despite the severe temperature fluctuations of the Ice Age. The reasons for their decline around 40 thousand years ago remain unclear. The authors of this study investigated the possible influence of dietary strategies using the fossilized molars of 52 Neandertals and Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens (modern humans). They analysed the type and degree of microwear on the teeth to attempt to draw conclusions about diet type and to establish a relationship with prevalent climactic conditions.

They found that as the climate fluctuated and habitats altered, Neandertals may have adapted their diet to the resources that were most readily available, eating mainly meat when in open, cold steppe environments, and supplementing their diet with more plants, seeds, and nuts when in forested landscapes. Meanwhile, modern humans seemed to stick to their dietary strategy regardless of slight environmental changes and retained a relatively large proportion of plant-based foods in their diet. “To be able to do this, they may have developed tools to extract dietary resources from their environment”” says Sireen El Zaatari. The researchers concluded that Upper Paleolithic modern humans’ differing dietary strategies may have given them an advantage over the Neandertals.

The Neandertals may have maintained their opportunistic approach of eating whatever was available in their changing habitats over hundreds of thousands of years. However, modern humans seem to have invested more effort in accessing food resources and significantly changed their dietary strategies over a much shorter period of time, in conjunction with their development of tools, which may have given them an advantage over Neanderthals.

The European Neandertal and modern human individuals analysed in this study do not temporally overlap and thus would not inform us about direct dietary competition between these two groups. Nevertheless, if the behavioral differences detected in this study were already established at the time of contact between them, these differences might have contributed to the demise of the Neandertals and the survival of modern humans.

Source: PLOS ONE press release.

___________________________________________________

*El Zaatari S, Grine FE, Ungar PS, Hublin J-J (2016) Neandertal versus Modern Human Dietary Responses to Climatic Fluctuations. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0153277. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153277

his is an image of a fossilized human molar used in the study of dietary habits of Neandertals and Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens. Credit: Sireen El Zaatari

his is an image of a fossilized human molar used in the study of dietary habits of Neandertals and Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens. Credit: Sireen El Zaatari

Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that Swiss cheesemaking dates back to prehistoric times, paving the way for such delicacies as Gruyere and Emmental.

Source: Iron age man was as fond of Swiss cheese as we are

2007799020

 

Original Article:

By Ruth Schuster
haaretz.com

They ate plants too but Neanderthals subsisted on animals, leading to liver and kidney enlargement and wider thoraxes, say Tel Aviv University archaeologists.

Neanderthals and humans were kissing cousins, literally, but they had their anatomical differences, among them wider pelvises and rib-cages. Now archaeologists from Tel Aviv University suggest that the reason for these anatomical discrepancies is that Neanderthals ate mostly meat, while Homo sapiens has had a more variegated diet.

It isn’t new that the Neaderthal ribcage and pelvis are wider than man’s. But until now scientists had assumed that had to do with Neanderthals having greater energetic demands than Homo sapiens. Whether or not that was a factor, the Tel Aviv archaeologists think the reason may have been more diet-oriented.

Studies of coprolites (fossil feces) have shown that Neanderthals, who lived among European and Middle Eastern humans until around 30,000-40,000 years ago, also ate plant matter. But a range of studies have shown the Neanderthal diet to be heavily biased towards protein – meat and fat. Chemical studies of their bones has indicated that a bigger proportion of their diet came from meat than cave bears found at the same sites; analysis of the isotopes in Neanderthal collagen shows their diet consisted mainly of herbivores, and megafauna, such as sloths, mammoths and prehistoric rhinoceroses, as well as plants.

In the frigid winters of the Ice Age, large animals may have flourished, but their fat content would have been reduced. A theoretical model created by the Israeli scientists predicts that during glacial winters, when carbohydrates weren’t available and fat was scarce, the Neanderthals needed to get more caloric intake meat, and evolved to better convert the protein into life-giving energy.

To contend with all that protein, their livers, which are responsible for protein metabolism, had to become larger. So their lower thoraxes did too.

The more protein is metabolized, the more toxins such as urea need removal from the body. As their protein metabolism increased, the Neanderthals needed more renal capacity – an enlarged bladder and kidneys – to get rid of the toxins, could, evolutionarily, be the reason why the Neanderthal pelvis is wider than ours.

“Given that high protein consumption is associated with larger liver and kidneys in animal models, it appears likely that the enlarged inferior section of the Neanderthals’ thorax and possibly, in part, also his wide pelvis, represented an adaptation to provide encasement for those enlarged organs,” write the scientists.

“Early indigenous Arctic populations who primarily ate meat also displayed enlarged livers and the tendency to drink a lot of water, a sign of increased renal activity,” Ben-Dor points out.

Why the Neanderthals eventually went extinct is not known. They also ate whatever herbivores they could catch, not only giant animals. But among the many theories is that their demise is related to the extinction of the megafauna, which disappeared just before they did, around 50,000 years ago. We don’t know precisely why the megafauna went extinct either but one postulation is that the climate changed in ways they found uncomfortable, and they were hunted to death. If so, that may have doomed the Neanderthals in their turn.

The discovery of a Roman pottery dump near Naples has revealed that the Romans used non-stick pans. Archaeologists unearthed fragments of pots with a thick, red, slippery coating (pictured), which are thought to have been used to cook meaty stews some 2,000 years ago Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3515952/Sorry-Tefal-Romans-used-non-stick-cookware-2-000-years-ago-Cumanae-testae-slippery-coating-stop-stews-sticking.html#ixzz492npLaQS Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

The discovery of a Roman pottery dump near Naples has revealed that the Romans used non-stick pans. Archaeologists unearthed fragments of pots with a thick, red, slippery coating (pictured), which are thought to have been used to cook meaty stews some 2,000 years ago

It was first suggested that the Romans cut down on their washing up by using non-stick pans in a first-century cookbook entitled De Re Coquinaria. A millstone was also found at the site (pictured), perhaps buried as an offering the the gods

It was first suggested that the Romans cut down on their washing up by using non-stick pans in a first-century cookbook entitled De Re Coquinaria. A millstone was also found at the site (pictured), perhaps buried as an offering the the gods

Original Article:

By SARAH GRIFFITHS

dailymail.co.uk

 

the Romans used non-stick cookware 2,000 years ago: ‘Cumanae testae’ has slippery coating to stop stews sticking
Fragments of pots with a thick, red, slippery coating unearthed near Naples
Said to be those of Cumanae testae – non-stick pottery used by the Romans
Existence was first seen in a Roman cookbook and has now been proved
Tests will now be carried out to determine what the coating was made of.

You may think Tefal frying pans and other handy non-stick cookware are modern inventions.
But the discovery of a Roman pottery dump near Naples has revealed that the Romans used non-stick pans too.
Archaeologists unearthed fragments of pots with a thick, red, slippery coating, which are thought to have been used to cook meaty stews some 2,000 years ago.

 

The fragments of cookware, known as Cumanae testae or Cumanae patellae – meaning pans from the city of Cumae – were found 12 miles (19km) west of Naples in the ancient city, Discovery News reported.

They date from between 27BC and 37 AD, or the rule of emperors Augustus and Tiberius.
It was first suggested the Romans cut down on their washing up by using non-stick pans in a first-century cookbook entitled De Re Coquinaria.

It said the easy-care cookware was particularly good for making chicken stews and its desirable properties meant it was exported across the Mediterranean to North Africa, France and Britain, for example.
After the passing of centuries, Professor of Greek and Roman art, Giuseppe Pucci, proposed that Cumanae testae has evolved into what’s known as Pompeian Red Ware – pottery with a thick red-slip coating on the inside.

But until now, no evidence of the historical cookware had been found.
A team of archaeologists from the University of Naples ‘L’Orientale’ found fragments of pottery with the distinctive glaze in Cumae, to support Dr Pucci’s claims.
‘We found a dump site filled with internal red-slip cookware fragments,’ Dr Marco Giglio, part of the team, told journalist Rossella Lorenzi.
‘This shows for the first time the Cumanae patellae were indeed produced in this city.’
The team unearthed more than 50,000 pieces of lids, pots and pans with the red glaze, suggesting the site may have been a dump for imperfect non-stick cookware.
‘These pieces help us enormously to reconstruct the way the pottery was manufactured,’ Dr Giglio said.
Because just 10 per cent of the site of the ancient pottery factories has been excavated, many more examples of the pottery may be found.
Analysis has shown the composition of the pottery is different to ‘Red Ware’ found in Pompeii, which had a lesser quality shiny, or non-stick coating.
Tests will now be carried out to determine what the coating was made of.
By comparison, modern-day, non-stick pots and pans use technology called polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Teflon is a brand of PTFE.
It uses layers of PTFE sprayed or rolled on, and the more layers, the higher the quality of non-stick coating.

Dr Giglio said finding the production site of the superior non-stick posts is an archaeologist’s dream.

Cumae was one of the first Greek colonies in Italy, founded in the eight century BC, with Roman soldiers conquering the city in 228 BC.
In Roman mythology, there is an entrance to the underworld located at Avernus, a crater lake near Cumae, and was the route Aeneas used to descend to the Underworld.
The coastal city was destroyed by the Neapolitans and abandoned in 2015.
Previous research has found that Mycenaean Greeks might have used non-stick pans to make bread more than 3,000 years ago.
Mycenaean ceramic griddles had one smooth side and one side covered with tiny holes.
The bread was likely placed on the side with the holes, since the dough tended to stick when cooked on the smooth side of the pan.
These holes seemed to be an ancient non-sticking technology, ensuring that oil spread evenly over the griddle.

 

 

The layout of Lattara (modern Lattes) at the end of the second century.  The tavern is located in Zone 75 [Credit: Antiquity]

The layout of Lattara (modern Lattes) at the end of the second century.
The tavern is located in Zone 75 [Credit: Antiquity]

A view of the ash-filled oven next to an insert (lower right) of a modern tabouna  (Tunisian bread) oven from Souidat, Tunisia [Credit: Antiquity]

A view of the ash-filled oven next to an insert (lower right) of a modern tabouna
(Tunisian bread) oven from Souidat, Tunisia [Credit: Antiquity]

Original Article:

Author: Laura Geggel | Source: LiveScience [March 10, 2016]

archaeologynewsnetwork

 

One of France’s earliest-known Roman taverns is still littered with drinking bowls and animal bones, even though more than 2,000 years have passed since it served patrons, a new archaeological study finds.

An excavation uncovered dozens of other artifacts, including plates and bowls, three ovens, and the base of a millstone that was likely used for grinding flour, the researchers said.

The finding is a valuable one, said study co-researcher Benjamin Luley, a visiting assistant professor of anthropology and classics at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania. Before the Romans invaded the south of France, in 125 B.C., a culture speaking the Celtic language lived there and practiced its own customs.

These Celtic people lived in densely settled, fortified sites during the Iron Age (750 B.C. to 125 B.C.), trading with cultures near and far, the researchers said. But after the Roman invasion, the Celtic culture at this location changed socially and economically, Luley said.

For instance, the new findings suggest that some people under the Romans stopped preparing their own meals and began eating at communal places, such as taverns.

“Rome had a big impact on southern France,” Luley told Live Science. “We don’t see taverns before the Romans arrive.”

The newly excavated tavern is located at Lattara, an archaeological site that’s been known to modern researchers since the early 1980s. But Luley and his colleague Gaël Piquès, a researcher at the French National Center for Scientific Research, were specifically looking for artifacts dating to the end of the Iron Age, when the Romans arrived, the archaeologists said.

The researchers were in luck: The site they uncovered dates to about 125 B.C. to 75 B.C., spanning the period following the Roman conquest, and was located at the intersection of two important streets, the scientists said.

At first, the researchers weren’t sure what to make of it. But a number of clues suggested the site was once a bustling tavern, one that likely served fish, flatbread, and choice cuts of cows and sheep, Luley said.

The excavated area includes a courtyard and two large rooms; one was dedicated to cooking and making flour, and the other was likely reserved for serving patrons, the researchers said. There are three large bread ovens on one end of the kitchen, which indicates that “this isn’t just for one family,” but likely an establishment for serving many people, Luley said. On the other side of the kitchen, the researchers found a row of three stone piles, likely bases for a millstone that helped people grind flour, Luley said.

“One side, they’re making flour. On the other side, they’re making flatbread,” Luley said. “And they’re also probably using the ovens for other things as well.” For example, the archaeologists found lots of fish bones and scales that someone had cut off during food preparation, Luley added.

The other room was likely a dining room, the researchers said. The archaeologists uncovered a large fireplace and a bench along three of the walls that would have accommodated Romans, who reclined when they ate, Luley said. Moreover, the researchers found different kinds of animal bones, such as wishbones and fish vertebra, which people simply threw on the floor. (At that time, people didn’t have the same level of cleanliness as some do now, Luley noted.)

The dining room also had “an overrepresentation of drinking bowls,” used for serving wine — more than would typically be seen in a regular house, he said. Next to the two rooms was a courtyard filled with more animal bones and an offering: a buried stone millstone, a drinking bowl and a plate that likely held cuts of meat.

“Based upon the evidence presented here, it appears that the courtyard complex … functioned as a space for feeding large numbers of people, well beyond the needs of a single domestic unit or nuclear family,” the researchers wrote in the study. “This is unusual, as large, ‘public’ communal spaces for preparing large amounts of food and eating together are essentially nonexistent in Iron Age Mediterranean France.”

Perhaps some of the people of Lattara needed places like the tavern to provide meals for them after the Romans arrived, Luley said.

“If they might be, say, working in the fields, they might not be growing their own food themselves,” he said. And though the researchers haven’t found any coins at the tavern yet, “We think that this is a beginning of the monetary economy” at Lattera, Luley said.

The study was published in the journal Antiquity.

 

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 813 other followers

%d bloggers like this: